Edward William Archibald was named on Canada's list of "Persons of National Historic Significance" by Secretary of State (Parks) Andy Mitchell, January 5, 1999. He was honored for his significant contributions as a neurosurgeon, clinical researcher and educator. Indeed, and he authored more than 100 publications, and was the leading Canadian thoracic surgeon in the 1920s and 1930s.
Archibald graduated from McGill University's medical school in 1896. In 1904, he became a staff surgeon at the Royal Victoria Hospital (RVH) in Montréal, where he would eventually rise to the position of Surgeon-in-Chief. Archibald was a survivor of tuberculosis, and had a strong interest in the disease which was killing about 8,000 people in Canada every year early in the 20th century.
In 1912, Archibald performed the first thoracoplasty in North America at the RVH. This was a procedure in which some of the rib cage was removed and the tuberculous lung collapsed. This permitted the lung to rest and heal. Archibald did not invent the procedure, but he improved it significantly. Archibald was elected President of the American Surgical Association in 1935. His efforts to promote standardized surgical education and certification were important in raising the standards of the profession all over North America.
-- taken from http://parkscanada.pch.gc.ca/library/background/66_e.htm